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03 November 2009

daun mamu ibu segala ubat (neem leaves)


ini kaknab petik dari satu blog untuk dikongsi bersama, sorry in english, tapi boleh lah baca pelan noooo.

NEEM
For centuries, millions have used various parts of the plant:
Neem twigs for cleaning teeth.
Neem cream healing skin disorders.
Neem leaf juice, taken Neem as a tonic,
Neem leaves in beds, books, grain bins, cupboards, and closets to keep away insects.
Various parts of the plant for treatment of ailments like fever, infections and other complaints.
Neem leaf extract substantially increases the state of oxidation in red blood cells
Neem reduces erosion deforestation and controlling the global warming process

Only in recent years, scientists in the Western countries started believing that this tree could be the source for providing tremendous benefit.
Today, researchers are saying that Neem could be called "a wonder tree" and eventually expect it to benefit everyone on the planet. This tree is expected to usher in a new era in pest control, provide millions with inexpensive medicines, cut down the rate of pollution growth, reduce erosion, deforestation and control the global warming process. This wonder tree has pesticide, germicidal and medicinal properties, and is capable of solving many problems facing mankind today. The wood is termite resistant and is used for carpentry as well as construction work. These trees grow quickly, thrive on marginal and poor soils, and neutralize soil acidity with its alkaline leaves.
Therefore, an increased commercial plantations and agroforestry involving Neem can enhance the economical potential of this tree with positive and large externalities for pesticides, fertilizers, live stocks, dairying and other value-added products
BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION AND CULTIVATION
Native to east India and Burma, it grows in much of Southeast Asia and West Africa.
The neem tree (Azadirachta indica) is a fast growing (up to twenty feet in three years) tropical evergreen related to mahogany. Outdoors, in locations where temperatures don't drop much below freezing, it may reach up to 50 feet tall. It will grow where rainfall is as little as 18 inches per year and thrives in areas that experience extreme heat of up to 120 degrees F. They are reported to live for up to 200 years.
The tree is often covered in delicate flowers in the early summer. It has a semi-sweet, olive-sized fruit. The seed inside is rich in oil with tremendous medicinal and botanical properties. The oil is easily obtained by pressing the kernels in a juicer. It generally begins bearing fruit at three to five years, and can produce up to 110 lbs. of fruit annually when mature.
Neem is a tropical tree; it must be protected from hard freezes. In northern climates it may be grown in pots with the care and appearance of the more-common ficus tree. Neem makes an ideal indoor plant because it grows well with a minimum of maintenance. For optimum growth, Neem should be placed near a sunny window during the winter and moved outside during summer months. However, they will survive indoors even if they don't receive any natural light at all. Its blooms are small, white flowers with a very sweet, jasmine-like scent. They are relatively heavy feeders, responding to organic fertilizers such as fish emulsion, bone meal and kelp with lush new growth.
Care
Few pests attack the Neem tree and most problems with Neem are directly related to over watering. Several different types of fungal diseases can cause die-back, and slugs that thrive in soggy spaces will
Neem
Azadirachta indica
For centuries, millions have used various parts of the plant:
Neem twigs for cleaning teeth.
Neem cream healing skin disorders.
Neem leaf juice, taken Neem as a tonic,
Neem leaves in beds, books, grain bins, cupboards, and closets to keep away insects.
Various parts of the plant for treatment of ailments like fever, infections and other complaints.
Neem leaf extract substantially increases the state of oxidation in red blood cells
Neem reduces erosion deforestation and controlling the global warming process.
Only in recent years, scientists in the Western countries started believing that this tree could be the source for providing tremendous benefit.
Today, researchers are saying that Neem could be called "a wonder tree" and eventually expect it to benefit everyone on the planet. This tree is expected to usher in a new era in pest control, provide millions with inexpensive medicines, cut down the rate of pollution growth, reduce erosion, deforestation and control the global warming process. This wonder tree has pesticide, germicidal and medicinal properties, and is capable of solving many problems facing mankind today. The wood is termite resistant and is used for carpentry as well as construction work. These trees grow quickly, thrive on marginal and poor soils, and neutralize soil acidity with its alkaline leaves.
Therefore, an increased commercial plantations and agroforestry involving Neem can enhance the economical potential of this tree with positive and large externalities for pesticides, fertilizers, live stocks, dairying and other value-added products
BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION AND CULTIVATION
Native to east India and Burma, it grows in much of Southeast Asia and West Africa.
The neem tree (Azadirachta indica) is a fast growing (up to twenty feet in three years) tropical evergreen related to mahogany. Outdoors, in locations where temperatures don't drop much below freezing, it may reach up to 50 feet tall. It will grow where rainfall is as little as 18 inches per year and thrives in areas that experience extreme heat of up to 120 degrees F. They are reported to live for up to 200 years.
The tree is often covered in delicate flowers in the early summer. It has a semi-sweet, olive-sized fruit. The seed inside is rich in oil with tremendous medicinal and botanical properties. The oil is easily obtained by pressing the kernels in a juicer. It generally begins bearing fruit at three to five years, and can produce up to 110 lbs. of fruit annually when mature.
Neem is a tropical tree; it must be protected from hard freezes. In northern climates it may be grown in pots with the care and appearance of the more-common ficus tree. Neem makes an ideal indoor plant because it grows well with a minimum of maintenance. For optimum growth, Neem should be placed near a sunny window during the winter and moved outside during summer months. However, they will survive indoors even if they don't receive any natural light at all. Its blooms are small, white flowers with a very sweet, jasmine-like scent. They are relatively heavy feeders, responding to organic fertilizers such as fish emulsion, bone meal and kelp with lush new growth.

Care
Few pests attack the Neem tree and most problems with Neem are directly related to over watering. Several different types of fungal diseases can cause die-back, and slugs that thrive in soggy spaces will eat the bottom leaves of small trees.

Health and Diseases

Ulcers
Resolution of 80% of the cases. Drink one glass three times a day of Neem leaf extract made by boiling 5g of Neem leaves, 15g of brown olives (for taste) in 3 liters of water for 20 minutes.

Gout
Elimination of the problem within one week. Drink one glass three times a day of Neem leaf extract made by boiling 5g of Neem leaves in 2 liters of water for 20 minutes.

Diabetes
Effective at managing the disease and in some cases healing after some time. Drink one glass a day of Neem leaf extract made by boiling 10g of Neem leaves in 2 litters of water for 20 minutes.

Pneumonia
Completely cured in 3 weeks. Drink one glass a day of hot Neem leaf extract made by boiling 2g of Neem leaves in one cup of water for 20 minutes. Chest related cases. Clears the chest within 3 days. Drink one glass a day of hot Neem leaf extract made by boiling 2g of Neem leaves in one cup of water for 20 minutes.

Malaria
Cures the disease completely in one week, very good in persistent cases. Drink one glass three times a day of Neem leaf extract made by boiling 30g of Neem leaves in 3 liters of water for 20 minutes.
Malaria is transmitted from an infected person to a non-infected person by the bites of certain species of mosquito. The insect bite injects gamete into the blood stream where it travels to the kidney to mature. Neem can block the development of the gamete in an infected person. This not only prevents the infected person from developing malaria but also stops the disease from spreading.
Neem leaf extract substantially increases the state of oxidation in red blood cells, preventing normal development of the malaria plasmodia.
Some westerners familiar with Neem often substitute an occasional Neem leaf tea to drinking quinine on trips to malaria-infested areas of Africa and India as a preventive measure. Neem extracts tested by the Malaria Institute were found to repel the mosquito that causes malaria for up to twelve hours. Neem provides protection from not only mosquitoes but also from biting flies, sand fleas and ticks. Because of Neem’s proven effectiveness insect repellents made with Neem are being used in malaria prone tropical countries.

Heart Disease:
High blood pressure, blood clots, high cholesterol levels and arrhythmic heart action are major causes of heart attack. Neem leaf extracts have been shown to reduce clotting, lower blood pressure and cholesterol, slow rapid heartbeat, and inhibit irregularities of the rhythms of the heart. There are also reports that some compounds can produce effects similar to mild sedatives reducing anxiety and other emotional and physical states that can precipitate heart attacks. This may be a calming effect similar to that witnessed with other herbal teas or a psychological result of physiological effects of blood vessel dilation and lower blood pressure.

Hypertension or High blood pressure:
The antihistamine properties of nimbidin in leaf extracts cause blood vessels to dilate and may be responsible for reducing blood pressure. Alcoholic extract of Neem leaf (intravenous) produced a significant and immediate decrease in blood pressure, which lasted for several hours. Another Neem leaf extract, sodium nimbidinate, administered to people with congestive cardiac failure acted successfully as a diuretic.

Cholesterol:
Neem leaf extracts reduced cholesterol levels significantly in recent studies. Alcoholic extract of Neem leaves reduced serum cholesterol by about 30% beginning two hours after administration and kept the level low for an additional four hours until the test ended.
Arrhythmia/rapid heartbeat:
Neem leaf extract exhibited anti-arrhythmic activity, returning to normal within eight minutes of administration, artificially induced arrhythmia. Neem extracts can also decrease abnormally high heart rates.

Psoriasis:
Neem oil is probably the best product currently available for treating psoriasis. It moisturizes and protects the skin while it helps heal the lesions, scaling and irritation. Experiments and reports from patients with psoriasis have shown taking Neem leaf orally combined with topical treatment with Neem extracts and Neem seed oil appear to be at least as effective as coal tar and cortisone in treating psoriasis.

Eczema:
The broad range of beneficial effects neem has on skin makes it one of the better treatments for eczema (dermatitis). Though neem oil is preferred because of the concentration of active compounds, topical applications of even the weaker leaf extracts have cured acute eczema.

Arthritis:
There have been numerous studies on the ability of extracts of neem leaf to reduce the inflammation caused by arthritis. The ailments can be autoimmune disorders, infections, and the result of wear on the joints or simply inflammation. Generally though it is the inflammation or the pain associated with it that is treated regardless of the origin. Neem's antibacterial properties can help kill infectious causes while its inflammation reducing properties and pain-suppressing properties can alleviate the symptoms.
Leaf compounds have been shown to be more potent inhibitors of prostaglandin than aspirin.
Limonoids and catechin in the leaf and seed may provide additional beneficial effects. Other possible explanations point to an inhibition of the release of mediators of acute inflammation.

Rheumatism:
The active constituents in neem leaves have outstanding anti-inflammatory activity, comparable even to the well-known modern drug phenyl butazone and cortisone. They relieve pain by acting on the prostaglandin mechanism and significantly reduce acute paw edema.

Diabetes:
Neem leaf is a traditional herb for treating diabetes and has been scientifically proven effective in treating and preventing diabetes. Diabetes is an incurable, chronic metabolic disorder that develops when the pancreas can no longer produce sufficient insulin. Blood sugar levels rapidly elevate yet the body is unable to use the energy contained in the sugar leading to weakness and eventually unconsciousness. Diabetes is the leading cause of blindness in people ages 25 to 74, damages nerves, kidneys, the heart and blood vessels and may result in the amputation of limbs.
Oral doses of Neem leaf extracts significantly reduced insulin requirements for non-insulin dependent diabetes. Neem oil has also proven effective and has been able to inhibit increases in blood sugar levels by as much as 45% in test animals.
The Indian government has approved the sale by pharmaceutical companies of Neem tablets for diabetics. (Some of these preparations are really nothing more than powdered Neem leaves.)

Cancer:
Researchers in India, Europe and Japan have now found that polysaccharides and limonoids found in Neem bark, leaves and seed oil reduced tumors and cancers and showed effectiveness against lymphocytic leukemia. In several patents issued in Japan hot water Neem bark extracts showed remarkable effectiveness against several types of tumors. Several of the extracts were equal to or better than the standard anti- cancer agent against solid tumors. Another researcher used an extract of Neem leaves to prevent the adhesion of cancer cells to other cells in the body. Without the ability to stick to other cells, cancers cannot spread through the body and are more easily destroyed by the body's own immune system or by other treatments. In general, Neem is known for its ability to affect cancers. Injections of Neem extract around tumors showed remarkable reduction in size in just a few weeks.

Skin Cancer
A number of reports have been made by patients that skin cancers have disappeared after several months of daily application of a Neem-based cream.

Digestive Disorders
Neem is regularly taken to correct problems with the stomach and bowels. Neem promotes a healthy digestive system by protecting the stomach, aiding in elimination and removing toxins and harmful bacteria.

Heartburn and Indigestion:
They are effective because some Neem extracts reduce the concentration of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Other compounds with apparent prostaglandin inhibition capabilities may also play a part in reducing gastric secretions. At the onset of indigestion traditional Ayurvedic practice is to drink a strong Neem tea made with five Neem leaves along with 1/4 teaspoon each of ginger and baking soda. The mixture is said to protect the stomach and reduce the discomfort.

Peptic and Duodenal Ulcers:
Neem is a generally accepted in the Ayurvedic medical tradition as a therapy for ulcers and gastric discomfort. People throughout the Indian subcontinent take Neem leaves for relief of stomach problems of any sort. Scientific validation of these practices is consistent in studies of the effectiveness of Neem and Neem extracts for gastric relief.
Compounds in Neem have been proven to have anti-ulcerative effects. Oral doses of Neem leaf extracts gave significant protection against peptic ulcers, duodenal ulcers and enhanced the healing process of gastric lesions. Nimbidin from seed extracts taken orally prevented duodenal lesions and peptic ulcers. They provided significant reductions in acid output and peptic activity of gastric fluids. The effects were most pronounced when doses were low (20 to 40 mg/kg) and increased dosages actually reduced the effectiveness of Neem’s anti-ulcerative effects. Neem seed extracts also showed significant healing effects from this compound for existing lesions. Similar compounds have been found in leaf extracts in lesser concentrations.

Gastritis
Neem extracts reduce the concentration of acid in the stomach and have anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties that can provide relief from the effects of gastritis.
Nervous Disorders:
One hour after taking aqueous leaf extracts -- or Neem tea -- weak excitation and increased activity are seen, while decreased activity and lower muscular tone occur after five hours. Nimbidin has a mild suppressive effect on the central nervous system. Neem leaf extracts produce lower activity, respiratory rate and muscle tone passivity as well as dose-dependent hypothermia. The active compounds may be limonoids, because most seem to be able to pass the blood-brain barrier.

Stress:
One of the most recent discoveries for Neem revealed that extracts of Neem leaves have been able to reduce anxiety and stress when ingested in small quantities. In an experiment to see what, if any, effect Neem leaf extract had on anxiety and stress fresh Neem leaves were crushed and the liquid squeezed out to obtain a leaf extract. The extract was then given orally to test animals that were placed in two different standard stress tests and the behavior noted. As controls and for comparison three main sets of animals were used. One group received salt water to act as a base control, another group received diazepam (Valium) and another set received the Neem leaf extract. To determine if Neem leaf extract worked differently at different amounts the Neem extract group was subdivided into sets that received ever-larger doses.
The amazing part of the experiment isn't that Neem can reduce anxiety. That is something that had been reported many times before scientific experimentation finally quantified it. The explanation for Neem’s anti-anxiety effect may rest with its ability to increase the amount of serotonin in the brain. The amazing part is that Neem extracts will only work in small doses. This unique quality of Neem could make Neem extract a safer alternative than drugs currently used for stress that compound their effects with higher doses up to a point where they can become dangerous.

Wound healing
Neem is a healing herb that is famous for its wound healing properties. Cuts, scrapes and poison oak and ivy can be salved with Neem oil lotions..

Other Uses

Natural Insect Repellent:
Neem has been used since antiquity as an insect repellent for both people and food crops.
One compound (salannin) found in Neem leaves, seeds and seed oil is a safer but more effective insect repellent than the widely used chemical ingredient called DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) currently found in most commercial repellents.
For those seeking a safe alternative to potentially dangerous synthetic repellents Neem offers an attractive alternative for the following reasons:
Neem oil is an excellent skin moisturizer while DEET is not recommended for repeated application to the skin, around the face or on the hands of small children.
Neem oil is a natural vegetable oil while DEET is not recommended to be sprayed on furniture, plastics, watch crystals, leather and painted surfaces including automobiles.
DEET may actually dissolve all synthetic fabrics but nylon.
Neem oil has been used safely for centuries while DEET is a synthetic chemical that has only been used for a short time and may pose future unknown health risks.

Agriculture
As scientists scour rainforests in dangerous and inaccessible areas of the world in search of useful plants, the neem tree grows inconspicuously in the front yards of homes and on college campuses throughout south Asia and Africa.
Neem's "soft" pesticide is improving the lives of farmers throughout the tropical range of the neem tree. Substituting crude neem extracts for expensive chemical controls saves both money and lives.
In developing countries, it is estimated 500,000 people are poisoned and up to 20,000 die annually from using agricultural chemicals.
Seedlings and educational programs give farmers the means and methods for easily making a cheap, safe and effective product that protects their crops from over 200 different insect pests, including the desert locust.
Farmers in Mexico and Haiti and shepherds in Australia have begun switching to simple Neem-based sprays from the usual synthetic chemical pest controls. This has allowed the farmers to export mangos and other fruit to the United States without the chemical residues that often stopped their shipments at inspection stations. Neem-based sprays have similarly allowed the shepherds in Australia to produce a pesticide-free wool that is being sold to European buyers for a considerable premium over the standard wool impregnated with chemical pesticides.

Food Storage:
Throughout the tropics much of the food harvested is lost during storage. More affluent farmers can and do spray their stored food crops with chemical pesticides to prevent worms, beetles and other infestations. Neem offers the impoverished farmers and even affluent farmers wanting to replace pesticides a natural and inexpensive alternative. A light coating of Neem oil protects stored food crops for up to twenty months from all types of infestations with no deterioration or loss of palatability.
Soil Amendment - Neem Cake:
After the oil has been pressed from the seed kernels, the remaining material is called "Neem cake." This material has been used for many centuries throughout India as a soil amendment. Experience has taught farmers there that working the leftover Neem cake into the soil of a garden produces larger, healthier plants that have few problems with insect pests.
Several studies were done to find out why plants grew better in soils mixed with neem cake. The studies discovered that Neem cake was richer in plant nutrients than manure, killed damaging nematodes, promoted larger populations of earthworms, helped keep nitrogen in the soil available for the plants, and provided significant protection from insects. This combination of effects provides an almost ideal growing condition for the plants.

Plant pest
By killing nematodes in the soil, a major plant pest is eliminated. Nematodes suck the juices from the roots of plants to the point where they are unable to supply sufficient nutrients to the plant. The plants looks sickly, fail to grow and may eventually die despite sufficient food, water and care. On the other hand, by promoting larger populations of earthworms, Neem cake helps keep the soil loose so that the roots can more easily absorb water and nutrients. Earthworms also enrich the soil by creating readily absorbable nutrients as it feeds on decaying plant material. Neem cake also reduces the nitrification rate of the soil by suppressing nitrifying bacteria such as nitrosomonas and nitrobacter bacteria. This reduces the need for applications of external nutrients. Some studies have shown that mixing Neem cake with regularly scheduled applications of manure can almost double crop yield over manure alone.

Disposable toothbrush
Neem twigs are used daily by millions in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan as disposable toothbrushes. Neem toothpastes and powders are reputed as effective dentrifice products. Extracts of Neem bark are used in some toothpastes and mouthwashes singly or in combination with other herbal extracts. The inhibiting effect of aqueous Neem extract upon bacterial properties influencing plaque formation has recently been confirmed.

Worm killers
Cattle leaf supplements containing Neem leaf powder are worm killers. Creams containing Neem oil is used for animal wound addressing and also act as fly and mosquito repellents. In Kenya, rural farming households have found in Neem an inexpensive way to protect the native chicken from the dreaded New Castle virus disease. Neem seed powder or cake mixed in water and provided for drinking or chicken force fed with Neem cake during epidemic survived, while other died.

Soap
The most common use of Neem oil is for soap production for economical reasons.
If properly used for soap production to harness its general hygiene properties, the resulted product proved to be of great health use. Such medicated soaps with Neem odor are proved to have very effective anti-germ properties.

Beauty aid
Neem is also becoming a popular beauty aid. Few companies are using Neem oil and leaves for production of cosmetics like facial creams, nail polishes, nail oils, shampoos and conditioners etc.

Food
Because of the fear of toxic residues in food products associated with the use of chemical pesticides, there is a growing importance of plant origin, which does not leave any residue. Though many plant chemicals have been reported to be suitable for this, Neem is the only plant from which the bio-pesticides are commercially manufactured, found effective, eco-friendly and acceptable to the farmers. Neem pesticides are now increasingly used in India on crops like cotton, vegetables, fruit trees, coffee, tea, rice and pigeon pea.
In conclusion
Increased commercial plantations and agro-forestry involving Neem can enhance the economical potential of this tree with positive and large externalities for pesticides, fertilizers, livestock, dairying and other value-added products

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